In our blog post on 22 February 2024 we reported on the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) announcement that it intended to launch a regulatory sandbox for software and AI medical devices called the “AI-Airlock”. The pilot project went live on 9 May 2024, and government sources are citing it as a key component of the MHRA’s strategic approach to AI, published on 30 April 2024 (discussed in a separate post).Continue Reading The MHRA’s “AI Airlock” – what do you need to know?

In a previous blog post, we discussed the UK government’s proposed changes to the regulatory framework governing clinical trials. Marking the start of this legislative change is a new notification scheme for the lowest-risk clinical trials (the scheme), published on 12 October 2023. The scheme is based on the proposal set out in the Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency’s (MHRA) consultation earlier this year, which was supported by 74% of respondents.

The scheme allows for the processing of eligible clinical trials by the MHRA in less than 14 days, instead of the statutory 30 days. The scheme currently only applies to clinical trial authorisation (CTA) applications for Phase 4 and certain Phase 3 clinical trials deemed as low risk, and provided they meet the MHRA’s eligibility criteria, set out below. Initial “first in human” Phase 1 or Phase 2 trials and clinical trial amendment applications will not be eligible.

The scheme aims to reduce the time taken to get lowest-risk clinical trials up and running, to give UK patients quicker access to potentially life-saving medicines, without undermining patient safety. The MHRA encourages clinical trial sponsors to use the scheme for all eligible trials and estimates that this will include 20% of UK initial clinical trial applications.Continue Reading UK clinical trials – new notification scheme for lowest-risk clinical trials

We set out in a previous post that the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) intends to introduce a new international recognition procedure (IRP) for medicinal products, whereby decisions taken in certain countries could be recognised by the MHRA to fast-track approval in the UK.

On 30 August 2023, the MHRA published detailed guidance on how it will use the IRP for medicinal products. The IRP will be open to applicants who have already received an authorisation for the same product from one of the MHRA’s specified Reference Regulators (RRs) in Australia, Canada, the European Union, Japan, Switzerland, Singapore and the United States. However, the MHRA retains the right to reject the IRP and conduct a full assessment if considered necessary.

This procedure will operate in parallel to the MHRA’s current national procedures, including the shortened 150-day timetable, offering applicants a range of authorisation routes depending on the status in other countries and type of application. The hope is that this will allow the MHRA to be able to use the decisions in other countries, while still being able to conduct its own assessment where necessary for the UK market.

The IRP will be available from 1 January 2024. However, until the Windsor framework is in place on 1 January 2025, discussed here, products falling within the scope of the EU Centralised Procedure can only be authorised in Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales).Continue Reading New UK International Recognition Framework for Medicines

Post-Brexit, the MHRA has been consulting on the future medical devices regulations, and how to retain the UK’s position as an attractive place to launch devices. As part of this, there have been a number of recent announcements about the medical devices regime in the UK.

  • On 27 April 2023, the MHRA updated its guidance on the implementation of the future medical devices regulations (the UK Regulations) to confirm the intention for the “core aspects” of the UK Regulations to apply from 1 July 2025.
  • The UK government has also introduced legislation that will be finalised before 30 June 2023 to allow valid EU CE marked medical devices to continue to be placed on the market in Great Britain. The extended periods will align with the transitional periods under the new UK Regulations.
  • On 26 May 2023, a proposed new regulatory pathway, the Innovative Devices Access Pathway (IDAP), set for pilot launch later in 2023, was announced, published as part of a suite of announcements that we will cover in a separate post.

Stakeholders will no doubt be pleased to hear of the development to extend the validity of EU CE marking in Great Britain, which allows for more realistic timeframes for manufacturers to obtain a UKCA mark, given the current state of flux of the UK medical device market following Brexit and the COVID-19 pandemic. The proposed IDAP pilot will also be a welcome development, and is another step taken by the MHRA to enhance innovation and stimulate interest in the UK medical devices industry, ahead of the implementation of the new UK medical devices regime in 2025.Continue Reading UK Medical Devices Update: Implementation of the UK Medical Devices Regulations and new Innovative Devices Access Pathway

The MHRA is continuing to publish details on how software and AI medical devices will be regulated in the UK post Brexit, with the aim of making the UK an attractive place to launch such products. The MHRA’s recent updates to its ‘Software and AI as a Medical Device Change Programme’ (the Change Programme) intend to “deliver bold steps to provide a regulatory framework that provides a high degree of protection for patients and public, but also makes sure that the UK is recognised globally as a home of responsible innovation for medical device software looking towards a global market.

The MHRA has also recently announced it will extend the period during which EU CE marks on medical devices (including for software) will be accepted on the UK market, until July 2024.

We set out an overview of these updates below.Continue Reading Latest on software and AI devices from the MHRA

There is currently no specific legislation in the UK that governs AI, or its use in healthcare. Instead, a number of general-purpose laws apply. These laws, such as the rules on data protection and medical devices, have to be adapted to specific AI technologies and uses. They sometimes overlap, which can cause confusion for businesses trying to identify the relevant requirements that have to be met, or to reconcile potentially conflicting provisions.

As a step towards a clearer, more coherent approach, on 18 July, the UK government published a policy paper on regulating AI in the UK. The government proposes to establish a pro-innovation framework of principles for regulating AI, while leaving regulatory authorities discretion over how the principles apply in their respective sectors. The government intends the framework to be “proportionate, light-touch and forward-looking” to ensure that it can keep pace with developments in these technologies, and so that it can “support responsible innovation in AI – unleashing the full potential of new technologies, while keeping people safe and secure”. This balance is aimed at ensuring that the UK is at the forefront of such developments.

The government’s proposal is broadly in line with the MHRA’s current approach to the regulation of AI. In the MHRA’s response to the consultation on the medical devices regime in the UK post-Brexit, it announced similarly broad-brush plans for regulating AI-enabled medical devices. In particular, no definition of AI as a medical device (AIaMD) will be included in the new UK legislation, and the regime is unlikely to set out specific legal requirements beyond those being considered for software as a medical device. Instead, the MHRA intends to publish guidance that clinical performance evaluation methods should be used for assessing safety and meeting essential requirements of AIaMD, and has also published the Software and AI as a medical device change programme to provide a regulatory framework with s a high degree of protection for patients and public.Continue Reading UK Policy Paper on regulation of AI

In December 2020, we posted about the MHRA’s draft guidance on randomised controlled trials generating real-world evidence (RWE) to support regulatory decisions. As we noted in our previous blog, although real-world data (RWD) are widely used to monitor the performance of medicines and devices in patients after regulatory approval, RWD have been utilised much less frequently to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of a product at the stage of initial authorisation. The MHRA aims to provide sponsors with points to consider when planning to conduct clinical trials using RWD sources, and to provide information on the design of studies seeking to generate evidence suitable for supporting regulatory decisions. It is hoped that a greater use of RWD, and more uniform collection and use, will accelerate the availability of cost-effective treatments and reduce the time and cost currently required to generate relevant data.

Following a public consultation on the draft guidance, the MHRA issued its guidance at the end of last year in the form of two papers:

  1. An introduction to the RWD guideline series; and
  2. The first guideline in the series, on planning a prospective randomised controlled trial using RWD sources with the intention of using the trial data to support regulatory decisions.

The intention is for the MHRA to publish further guidelines in the series in due course.Continue Reading Use of Real-World Evidence in the UK

The UK’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Authority (MHRA), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada have recently published a joint statement identifying ten guiding principles to help inform the development of Good Machine Learning Practice (GMLP).  The purpose of these principles is to “help promote safe, effective, and high quality medical devices that use artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML)”.

The development and use of medical devices that use AI and ML has grown considerably over the last few years and will continue to do so. It has been recognised that such technologies have the potential to transform the way in which healthcare is deployed globally, through the analyse of vast amounts of real-world data from which software algorithms can learn and improve. However, as these technologies become more complex and nuanced in their application, this brings into question how they should be overseen and regulated. Crucially, it must be ensured that such devices are safe and beneficial to those who use them, whilst recognising associated risks and limitations.Continue Reading Ten International Guiding Principles on Good Machine Learning in Medical Devices

The UK MHRA has issued draft guidance on randomised controlled trials generating real-world evidence (RWE) that is used to support regulatory decisions. It is intended to be the first in a series of guidance documents addressing RWE. The guidance is part of the MHRA’s push to reinforce the view of the MHRA as a pro-innovative regulatory authority, and that the UK is a leading country in which to conduct clinical research, post-Brexit.
Continue Reading UK MHRA consultation on real-world evidence

On 12 October 2018, the MHRA issued Guidance for products without an intended medical purpose (Annex XVI) under the new Medical Device Regulation (EU 2017/745) providing guidance on the expansion of scope of the medical devices regime to include certain products which had been previously unregulated at EU level.

Article 1(2) of the Medical Devices Regulation (MDR), in force from 25 May 2017, explains that the MDR will regulate “certain groups of products without an intended medical purpose” as though they were medical devices.

There are currently six types of products in this category which are listed at Annex XVI of the MDR.Continue Reading New MHRA guidance on non-medical devices